Background - Apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) can be induced in vitro by experimentally modified LDL. Description of proapoptotic circulating lipoproteins may significantly enhance understanding of atherothrombosis pathophysiology. Methods and Results - Fast protein liquid chromatography of LDL samples from 7 asymptomatic, hypercholesterolemic patients yielded subfractions L1-L5, in increasing electronegativity. L4 and L5 were not detectable or collectible in normolipidemic samples. In bovine aortic EC cultures, L5 induced marked apoptosis and L4 had a mild effect, whereas hypercholesterolemic or normolipidemic L1-L3 had negligible effects. Compared with copper-oxidized LDL, L5 was only mildly oxidized, although its propensity to form conjugated dienes in response to copper exceeded that of other subfractions. L5-induced apoptosis was associated with suppressed fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) transcription, as assessed by nuclear run-on analysis. Degrading platelet-activating factor (PAF)-like lipids in L5by a recombinant PAF acetylhydrolase prevented both FGF-2 downregulation and apoptosis. Furthermore, the ability of L5 lipid extract to induce calcium influx into neutrophils was lost after pretreatment of the extract with PAF acetylhydrolase. FGF-2 supplementation, PAF receptor (PAFR) blockade with WEB-2086, and inactivation of PAFR-coupled Gi protein with pertussis toxin all effectively attenuated L5-induced apoptosis. Conclusions - Our findings indicate that a highly electronegative, mildly oxidized LDL subfraction present in human hypercholesterolemic but not normolipidemic plasma can induce apoptosis in cultured ECs. The evidence that a freshly isolated LDL species modulates transcription of FGF-2 may provide a physiological insight into the mechanism of vascular EC apoptosis in hypercholesterolemia.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|State||Published - Apr 29 2003|
- Growth substances
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine