Long-Term Use of Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Tedi Begaj, Daeun Jeong, Jong G. Park, Margaret M. Runner, Antonio Capone, A. Bawa Dass, Kimberly A. Drenser, Lisa J. Faia, Nathan D. Farley, Bruce R. Garretson, Tarek S. Hassan, Tamer H. Mahmoud, Alan Margherio, Paul V. Raphaelian, Sandeep Randhawa, Alan J. Ruby, Scott Sneed, Prethy Rao, Jeremy D. Wolfe, George A. Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose:Although pivotal trials have demonstrated efficacy of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in neovascular age-related macular degeneration, there is a paucity of clinical data about the long-term (>5 years) treatment.Methods:Retrospective analysis of all patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration who were actively treated, had received >40 anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections, and were followed for ≥5 years. Snellen-corrected visual acuity, initial drug choice, and times elapsed between treatments were collected. Rates of endophthalmitis and outcomes of submacular hemorrhage were also evaluated.Results:A total of 88 patients (162 eyes) met the inclusion criteria: the average patient age was 86.3 years with an average follow-up period of 7.6 years. The average total number of injections per eye was 69 (18.0 SD); a total of 11,208 injections were given throughout the study period, and 6 cases (0.05%) of endophthalmitis were observed. Overall, there was a clinical and statistical difference in average Snellen-corrected visual acuity at Injections #2,#3, #4, #5, #6, #10, and #20, as compared with baseline (P = 0.03, P < 0.01, P = 0.02, P < 0.01, P = 0.01, P = 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively). Patients in the Snellen-corrected visual acuity subgroup 20/20 to 20/40 maintained vision until injection #30. Seven eyes experienced a visually significant submacular hemorrhage.Conclusion:This neovascular age-related macular degeneration cohort received on average eight anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections per year for approximately 8 years; eyes with good (≥20/40) initial baseline vision maintained their visual acuity, whereas those with worse Snellen-corrected visual acuity (≤20/50) had a robust initial improvement that diminished with time. Most patients were maintained on the same initial drug of choice and the rate of endophthalmitis was low.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)222-229
Number of pages8
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2024


  • "real world" outcomes
  • age-related macular degeneration
  • anti-VEGF
  • Keywods:

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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