Objectives This study sought to examine long-term outcomes with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in women versus men. Background TAVR is commonly performed in women. Previous studies have shown conflicting results with respect to sex differences in outcomes with TAVR. In addition, short-term outcomes have primarily been reported. Methods Electronic search was performed until March 2017 for studies reporting outcomes with TAVR in women versus men. Random effects DerSimonian-Laird risk ratios were calculated. Outcomes included all-cause mortality and major cardiovascular events at short- (30 days) and long-term (>1 year) follow-up. Results Seventeen studies (8 TAVR registries; 47,188 patients; 49.4% women) were analyzed. Women were older but exhibited fewer comorbidities. At 30 days, women had more bleeding (p < 0.001), vascular complications (p < 0.001), and stroke/transient ischemic attack (p = 0.02), without difference in all-cause (p = 0.19) or cardiovascular mortality (p = 0.91) compared with men. However, female sex was associated with lower all-cause mortality at 1 year (risk ratio: 0.85; 95% confidence interval: 0.79 to 0.91; p < 0.001), and longest available follow-up (mean 3.28 ± 1.04 years; risk ratio: 0.86; 95% confidence interval: 0.81 to 0.92; p < 0.001), potentially caused by less moderate/severe aortic insufficiency (p = 0.001), and lower cardiovascular mortality (p = 0.009). The female survival advantage remained consistent across multiple secondary analyses. The risk of stroke, moderate/severe aortic insufficiency, and all-cause mortality seemed to vary based on the type of valve used; however, without significant subgroup interactions. Conclusions Despite a higher upfront risk of complications, women derive a better long-term survival after TAVR compared with men.
- aortic valve replacement
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine