Long-acting tunable release of amlodipine loaded PEG-PCL micelles for tailored treatment of chronic hypertension

Nicola Di Trani, Hsuan Chen Liu, Ruogu Qi, Dixita I. Viswanath, Xuewu Liu, Corrine Ying Xuan Chua, Alessandro Grattoni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Hypertension is a chronic condition that requires lifelong therapeutic management. Strict adherence to drug administration timing improves efficacy, while poor adherence leads to safety concerns. In light of these challenges, we present a nanofluidic technology that enables long-acting drug delivery with tunable timing of drug administration using buried gate electrodes in nanochannels. We developed a poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG-PCL)-based micellar formulation of amlodipine besylate, a calcium channel blocker for hypertension treatment. The electrostatically charged PEG-PCL micellar formulation enhanced drug solubility and rendered amlodipine responsive to electrostatic release gating in nanochannels for sustained release at clinically relevant therapeutic dose. Using a low-power (<3 VDC) gating potential, we demonstrated tunable release of amlodipine-loaded micelles. Additionally, we showed that the released drug maintained biological activity via calcium ion blockade in vitro. This study represents a proof of concept for the potential applicability of our strategy for chronotherapeutic management of hypertension.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102417
JournalNanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Early online dateJun 22 2021
StatePublished - Oct 1 2021


  • Amlodipine
  • Controlled release
  • Drug delivery
  • Hypertension
  • Micelle encapsulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Pharmaceutical Science


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