Introduction: Limited evidence exists on the comparative effectiveness of local treatments for prostate cancer (PCa) due to the lack of generalizability. Using granular national data, we sought to examine the association between radical prostatectomy (RP) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment and survival. Methods: Records were abstracted for localized PCa cases diagnosed in 2004 across seven state registries to identify patients undergoing RP (n=3019) or IMRT (n=667). Comorbidity was assessed by the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE-27). Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to balance covariates between treatment groups. All-cause and PCa-specific mortality were primary endpoints. A subgroup analysis of patients with high-risk PCa (RP, n=89; IMRT, n=95) was conducted. Results: Following PSM, matched patients (n=502 pairs) treated with either RP or IMRT were well-balanced with respect to covariates. With a median followup of 10.5 years (interquartile range [IQR] 9.9-11.0), the 11-year overall survival (OS) was 71.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 66.9-75.8) for RP and 62.3% (95% CI 57.4-67.6) for IMRT. IMRT was associated with a 41% increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.41, 95% CI 1.13-1.76) but not PCa-specific mortality (HR 1.75, 95% CI 0.84-3.64), as compared to RP. In patients with highrisk PCa, IMRT, as compared to RP, was not associated with statistically significant difference in all-cause (HR 1.53, 95% CI 0.97-2.42) or PCa-specific mortality (HR 1.92, 95% CI 0.69- 5.36). Conclusions: Despite a low mortality rate at 10 years and possible residual confounding, we found a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality, but no PCa-specific mortality associated with IMRT as compared to RP in this population-based study.
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