Liver transplantation (LT) for unresectable colorectal liver metastases has long been abandoned because of dismal prognoses. After the dark ages, advances in chemotherapy and diagnostic imaging have enabled strict patient selection, and the pioneering study from the Oslo group has contributed to the substantial progress in this field. For unresectable neuroendocrine liver metastases, LT for patients who met the Milan criteria was able to achieve excellent long-term outcomes. The guidelines further adopted in the United States and Europe were based on these criteria. For hepatoblastoma, patients with unresectable and borderline-resectable disease are considered good candidates for LT; however, the indications are yet to be defined. In the budding era of transplant oncology, it is critically important to recognize the current status and unsolved questions for each disease entity. These guidelines were developed to serve as a beacon of light for optimal patient selection for LT and set the stage for future basic and clinical studies.
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