Purpose of reviewLiver transplantation for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) has been mired in controversy. High rates of recurrence posttransplant combined with donor organ scarcity resulted in most transplant centers treating iCCA as a contraindication for liver transplantation.Recent findingsRecent studies have shown that carefully selected patients with unresectable iCCA can have good outcomes after liver transplantation. Better outcomes have been seen in patients with smaller tumors and favorable tumor biology.SummaryBecause many patients are diagnosed with iCCA at later stages, tumor biology and genetics are useful tools to identify patients who will have excellent overall and recurrence-free survival after liver transplantation. Further larger multicenter prospective studies are needed to identify patients who would benefit from liver transplantation with good outcomes. Additional advances will come through early diagnosis and utilizing a combination of chemotherapy and locoregional modalities as a bridge to transplant. There is also a need to recognize and develop additional neo- and adjuvant therapies for patients whose tumor biology currently precludes their inclusion on the liver transplantation waitlist.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)320-328
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent opinion in organ transplantation
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 1 2022


  • intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma
  • liver transplantation
  • neoadjuvant therapy
  • transplant oncology
  • Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic/pathology
  • Multicenter Studies as Topic
  • Humans
  • Liver Transplantation/adverse effects
  • Bile Duct Neoplasms/surgery
  • Cholangiocarcinoma/genetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Transplantation
  • Immunology and Allergy


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