Lipid-based oral delivery systems for skin deposition of a potential chemopreventive DIM derivative: characterization and evaluation

Cedar H.A. Boakye, Ketan Patel, Apurva R. Patel, Henrique A.M. Faria, Valtencir Zucolotto, Stephen Safe, Mandip Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The objective of this study was to explore the oral route as a viable potential for the skin deposition of a novel diindolylmethane derivative (DIM-D) for chemoprevention activity. Various lipid-based oral delivery systems were optimized and compared for enhancing DIM-D’s oral bioavailability and skin deposition. Preformulation studies were performed to evaluate the log P and solubility of DIM-D. Microsomal metabolism, P-glycoprotein efflux, and caco-2 monolayer permeability of DIM-D were determined. Comparative evaluation of the oral absorption and skin deposition of DIM-D-loaded various lipid-based formulations was performed in rats. DIM-D showed pH-dependent solubility and a high log P value. It was not a strong substrate of microsomal degradation and P-glycoprotein. SMEDDs comprised of medium chain triglycerides, monoglycerides, and kolliphor-HS15 (36.70 ± 0.42 nm). SNEDDs comprised of long chain triglycerides, cremophor RH40, labrasol, and TPGS (84.00 ± 14.14 nm). Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) consisted of compritol, miglyol, and surfactants (116.50 ± 2.12 nm). The blank formulations all showed >70 % cell viability in caco-2 cells. Differential Scanning Calorimetry confirmed the amorphization of DIM-D within the lipid matrices while Atomic Force Microscopy showed particle size distribution similar to the dynamic light scattering data. DIM-D also showed reduced permeation across caco-2 monolayer that was enhanced (p < 0.05) by SNEDDs in comparison to SMEDDs and NLC. Fabsolute for DIM-D SNEDDs, SMEDDs, and NLC was 0.14, 0.04, and 0.007, respectively. SNEDDs caused 53.90, 11.32, and 15.08-fold more skin deposition of DIM-D than the free drug, SMEDDs, and NLC, respectively, at 2 h following oral administration and shows a viable potential for use in skin cancer chemoprevention. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)526-539
Number of pages14
JournalDrug Delivery and Translational Research
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016


  • Diindolylmethane (DIM)
  • First pass metabolism
  • Lipid-based drug delivery systems
  • Oral delivery
  • P-glycoprotein efflux pump
  • Skin delivery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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