Levels of prostaglandin E metabolite, the major urinary metabolite of prostaglandin E2, are increased in smokers

Neil D. Gross, Jay O. Boyle, Jason D. Morrow, Myles K. Williams, Chaya S. Moskowitz, Kotha Subbaramaiah, Andrew J. Dannenberg, Anna J. Duffield-Lillico

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations


Purpose: Increased levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE2) have been observed in tobacco-related malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract. Moreover, exposure to tobacco smoke can stimulate the synthesis of PGE2. Recent evidence suggests that urinary PGE metabolite (PGE-M) can be used as an index of systemic PGE 2 production. In this study, we investigated whether levels of urinary PGE-M were increased in smokers and in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Experimental Design: Fifty-eight HNSCC cases and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were prospectively enrolled in the study. A detailed smoking history and single void urine specimen were obtained from each participant. Levels of urinary PGE-M were quantified in a blinded fashion using mass spectrometry and compared with smoking history and tumor status. Results: Adjusted for case-control matching, median urinary PGE-M levels were significantly higher in ever smokers (15.7 ng/mg creatinine) compared with never smokers (9.9 ng/mg creatinine) for the entire study population (n = 87, P = 0.005). Concentrations of urinary PGE-M were nearly doubled in ever smokers (15.2 ng/mg creatinine) versus never smokers (7.8 ng/mg creatinine) among healthy controls (P = 0.001). Higher PGE-M levels were observed in current versus former smokers and in those with greater pack-year exposure. A significant difference in amounts of PGE-M was not observed in patients with HNSCC versus healthy controls. Conclusions: Increased levels of urinary PGE-M were observed in smokers. Urinary PGE-M may have use as a noninvasive biomarker of the effects of tobacco smoke exposure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6087-6093
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Cancer Research
Issue number16
StatePublished - Aug 15 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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