Previously we showed that cGMP hydrolysis in rat whole retinal homogenates exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition following developmental lead exposure and a concentration-dependent inhibition with direct Pb2+ exposure. Additionally, developmental lead exposure resulted in a dose-dependent increase in retinal cGMP and rod Ca2+ levels. To determine whether Pb2+ or Ca2+ directly inhibited the rod-specific cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) and to examine the kinetic mechanism of this inhibition, purified bovine rod cGMP PDE was assayed in the presence of varying concentrations of cGMP, and Mg2+, Pb2+, and/or Ca2+. Increasing concentrations of the substrate, cGMP, resulted in a shift of the Pb2+ and Ca2+ concentration-response curves to the left, indicating a decrease in the half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of Pb2+ from nanomolar to picomolar levels. Increasing concentrations of the cofactor, Mg2+, resulted in a shift of the Pb2+ and Ca2+ concentration-response curves to the right, indicating a decrease in the inhibition of PDE activity by Pb2+ or Ca2+. A plot of 1/velocity vs 1/Mg2+ as a function of Pb2+ revealed that picomolar concentrations of Pb2+ competitively inhibited PDE relative to millimolar concentrations of Mg2+. Consistent with this finding, Mg2+ reversed the Pb2+-induced inhibition of PDE. Our recent kinetic analysis showed that Mg2+ and cGMP bind at interacting sites on the PDE in a random order. The present results reveal that Pb2+ may bind at the same site but with 4-6 log units higher affinity than Mg2+, thus preventing the hydrolysis of cGMP. These findings provide a novel mechanism for understanding the Pb2+-induced inhibition of cGMP PDE. These results may have implications for other enzymes using Mg2+ as a cofactor and suggest that Mg2+ may be useful in these situations for reversing the inhibition by Pb2+.
ASJC Scopus subject areas