Latent structure of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: A confirmatory factor analytic study

Kevin W. Greve, Timothy R. Stickle, Jeffrey M. Love, Kevin J. Bianchini, Matthew S. Stanford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

139 Scopus citations


The present study represents the first large scale confirmatory factor analysis of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). The results generally support the three factor solutions reported in the exploratory factor analysis literature. However, only the first factor, which reflects general executive functioning, is statistically sound. The secondary factors, while likely reflecting meaningful cognitive abilities, are less stable except when all subjects complete all 128 cards. It is likely that having two discontinuation rules for the WCST has contributed to the varied factor analytic solutions reported in the literature and early discontinuation may result in some loss of useful information. Continued multivariate research will be necessary to better clarify the processes underlying WCST performance and their relationships to one another.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)355-364
Number of pages10
JournalArchives of Clinical Neuropsychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2005


  • Assessment
  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Executive function
  • Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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