Three cloned apolipoprotein A-II genes were isolated from a human genomic cosmid library constructed in our laboratory. An ~3-kilobase HindIII insert containing the entire gene was analyzed by RNA:DNA hybridization and electron microscopy. The apo-A-II gene was found to consist of 4 exons and 3 intervening sequences (IVS), and the lengths of each exon and IVS were estimated by direct observation of the hybrids. The entire ~3-kilobase HindIII insert was sequenced. The 5' end of the gene was determined by primer extension. The DNA sequence confirms the presence of 4 exons and 3 IVS: exon 1, 34 nucleotides; exon 2, 76 nucleotides; exon 3, 133 nucleotides; exon 4, 230 nucleotides; IVS-I, 169 nucleotides; IVS-II, 299 nucleotides; and IVS-III, 396 nucleotides. A 'TATA box' is located at position -29 from the CAP site. A 'CAT box' is presented at position -78. A 'TG' element consisting of (TG)19 is identified at the 3' end of IVS-III. Furthermore, an enhancer core sequence, CTTTCCA, is identified at position -355 in the 5' flanking sequence. At positions -497 to -471 upstream from the CAP site is a stretch of 27 nucleotides that show high homology to stretches of 5' flanking sequences in the apo-C-II, apo-A-I, apo-E, and apo-C-III genes. An Alu dimer sequence is located approximately 300 nucleotides from the 3' end of the gene. Within this Alu sequence, we have identified a polymorphic MspI site. Restriction fragment length polymorphism involving this site has been previously shown to correlate with apo-A-II levels and high density lipoprotein structure. Analysis of conformation by Chou-Fasman analysis and by the helical hydophobic moment of Eisenberg et al. indicates that in all of the 5 apolipoproteins characterized at the nucleotide level to date, i.e. apo-C-II, apo-A-II, apo-E, apo-A-I, and apo-C-III, the 2 IVS within the peptide coding regions of the gene tend to occur at regions corresponding to the surface of the polypeptide chain and divide the protein into distinct functional domains.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|State||Published - 1985|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology