Ischemia/reperfusion, which is characterized by deficient oxygen supply and subsequent restoration of blood flow, can cause irreversible damages to tissue. Mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of ischemia reperfusion injury are complex, multifactorial and highly integrated. Extensive research has focused on increasing organ tolerance to ischemia reperfusion injury, especially through the use of ischemic conditioning strategies. Of morbidities that potentially compromise the protective mechanisms of the heart, diabetes mellitus appears primarily important to study. Diabetes mellitus increases myocardial susceptibility to ischemia reperfusion injury and also modifies myocardial responses to ischemic conditioning strategies by disruption of intracellular signaling responsible for enhancement of resistance to cell death. The purpose of this review is twofold: first, to summarize mechanisms underlying ischemia reperfusion injury and the signal transduction pathways underlying ischemic conditioning cardioprotection; and second, to focus on diabetes mellitus and mechanisms that may be responsible for the lack of effect of ischemic conditioning strategies in diabetes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine