IPX203 vs Immediate-Release Carbidopa-Levodopa for the Treatment of Motor Fluctuations in Parkinson Disease: The RISE-PD Randomized Clinical Trial

Robert A. Hauser, Alberto J. Espay, Aaron L. Ellenbogen, Hubert H. Fernandez, Stuart H. Isaacson, Peter A. Lewitt, William G. Ondo, Rajesh Pahwa, Johannes Schwarz, Fabrizio Stocchi, Leonid Zeitlin, Ghazal Banisadr, Stanley Fisher, Hester Visser, Richard D'Souza

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


IMPORTANCE: Levodopa has a short half-life and a limited window of opportunity for absorption in the proximal small intestine. IPX203 is an oral, extended-release formulation of carbidopa-levodopa developed to address these limitations.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of IPX203 vs immediate-release carbidopa-levodopa in patients with Parkinson disease who are experiencing motor fluctuations.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: RISE-PD was a 20-week, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled, phase 3 clinical trial. The study was conducted between November 6, 2018, and June 15, 2021, at 105 academic and clinical centers in the US and Europe. Patients with Parkinson disease taking a total daily dose of 400 mg or more of levodopa and experiencing an average of 2.5 hours or more daily off-time were included in the study. A total of 770 patients were screened, 140 were excluded (those taking controlled-release carbidopa-levodopa apart from a single daily bedtime dose, Rytary (Amneal Pharmaceuticals), additional carbidopa or benserazide, or catechol O-methyl transferase inhibitors or who had a history of psychosis within the past 10 years), and 630 were enrolled in the trial.

INTERVENTIONS: Following open-label immediate-release carbidopa-levodopa dose adjustment (3 weeks) and conversion to IPX203 (4 weeks), patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to double-blind, double-dummy treatment with immediate-release carbidopa-levodopa or IPX203 for 13 weeks.

MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: The primary end point was mean change in daily good on-time (ie, on-time without troublesome dyskinesia) from baseline to the end of the double-blind treatment period.

RESULTS: A total of 630 patients (mean [SD] age, 66.5 [8.95] years; 396 [62.9%] men) were enrolled, and 506 patients were randomly assigned to receive IPX203 (n = 256) or immediate-release carbidopa-levodopa (n = 250). The study met its primary end point, demonstrating statistically significant improvement in daily good on-time for IPX203 compared to immediate-release carbidopa-levodopa (least squares mean, 0.53 hours; 95% CI, 0.09-0.97; P = .02), with IPX203 dosed a mean 3 times per day vs 5 times per day for immediate-release carbidopa-levodopa. Good on-time per dose increased by 1.55 hours with IPX203 compared to immediate-release carbidopa-levodopa (95% CI, 1.37-1.73; P < .001). IPX203 was well tolerated. The most common adverse events in the double-blind phase (IPX203 vs immediate-release carbidopa-levodopa) were nausea (4.3% vs 0.8%) and anxiety (2.7% vs 0.0%).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this study, IPX203 provided more hours of good on-time per day than immediate-release carbidopa-levodopa, even as IPX203 was dosed less frequently.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03670953.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1062-1069
Number of pages8
JournalJAMA Neurology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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