6 Scopus citations


Advanced imaging for intraoperative evaluation of venous pathologies has played an increasingly significant role in this era of evolving minimally invasive surgical and interventional therapies. The evolution of dedicated venous stents and other novel interventional devices has mandated the need for advanced imaging tools to optimize safe and accurate device deployment. Most venous interventions are typically performed using a combination of standard 2-dimensional (2D) fluoroscopy, digital-subtraction angiography, and intravascular ultrasound imaging techniques. Latest generation computer tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners have been shown to provide high-resolution 3D and 4D information about venous vasculature. In addition to morphological imaging, novel MRI techniques such as 3D time-resolved MR venography and 4D flow sequences can provide quantitative information and help visualize intricate flow patterns to better understand complex venous pathologies. Moreover, the high-fidelity information from multiple imaging techniques can be integrated using image fusion to overcome the limitations of current intraoperative imaging techniques. For example, the limitations of standard 2D fluoroscopy and luminal angiography can be compensated for by perivascular and soft-tissue information from MRI during complex venous interventions using image fusion techniques. Intraoperative dynamic evaluation of devices such as venous stents and real-time understanding of changes in flow patterns during venous interventions may be routinely available in future interventional suites with integrated multimodality CT or MR imaging capabilities. The purpose of this review is to discuss the outlook for intraoperative imaging and multimodality image fusion techniques and highlight their value during complex venous interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)200-207
Number of pages8
JournalMethodist DeBakey cardiovascular journal
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1 2018


  • MRI venous imaging
  • cone-beam CT imaging
  • image fusion
  • intraoperative imaging
  • multimodality image guidance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Intraoperative Imaging and Image Fusion for Venous Interventions'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this