Intraoperative diagnosis of the head and neck lesions, thyroid and parathyroid gland, bone and soft tissue, and genitourinary tract

Mojgan Amrikachi, Ibrahim Ramzy

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (peer-reviewed)peer-review

1 Scopus citations


In this article, indications and pitfalls in frozen section diagnosis in selected organs and systems are discussed. The main indications for frozen section examination of head and neck and genitourinary system lesions are to evaluate the resection margin and the metastatic involvement of lymph nodes. Recently, intraoperative consultation has been introduced for identification of patients who might benefit from testis-sparing surgery. Preoperative fine-needle aspiration has greatly diminished the need for frozen section evaluation of thyroid lesions. The only reasonable indication for intraoperative examination of the thyroid is a lesion suspected of malignancy for which preoperative cytology is not aviable for various reasons. In contrast, frozen section is still routinely requested at many institutions to confirm the presence of parathyroid lesions, although precise differentiation between parathyroid hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma is not possible in most cases by histological assesment alone. Tumors of bone and soft tissue are relatively rare, and most pathologists are unfamiliar with intraoperative consultation of these lesions. However, in many cases, limb-sparing management of bone and soft tissue sarcomas is dependent on intraoperative histological diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis is possible in most instances by correlating the histology with clinical and radiological data. In selected cases, histochemistry and/or intraoperative immunohistochemistry may be helpful in diagnosis of bone lesions.  Keywords: frozen section - head and neck - thyroid gland - parathyroid gland - soft tissue - urogenital tract.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationClinical Cytopathology
Subtitle of host publicationFundamental Principles and Practice
EditorsIbrahim Ramzy, Dina Mody, Rodolfo Laucirica
PublisherMcGraw Hill Education
Number of pages9
ISBN (Electronic)978-0071715225
ISBN (Print)978-0071715225
StatePublished - Jun 1 2018

Publication series

NameCeskoslovenska patologie
ISSN (Print)1210-7875


Dive into the research topics of 'Intraoperative diagnosis of the head and neck lesions, thyroid and parathyroid gland, bone and soft tissue, and genitourinary tract'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this