Urethral injection is a safe and minimally invasive method of treating female stress urinary incontinence with multiple bulking agents currently commercially available. Although there are numerous studies that demonstrate efficacy, long-term success is not yet proven. This article aims to describe the mechanism of action and properties of various agents, patient selection factors, available techniques for injection, outcomes of urethral injections, and complications associated with the procedure.
- Female stress urinary incontinence
- Urethral bulking agents
- Urethral injections
ASJC Scopus subject areas