Initial experience with minimally invasive endoscopic evacuation of intracerebral hemorrhage in the setting of radiographic herniation

Muhammad Ali, Georgios A. Maragkos, Kurt A. Yaeger, Alexander J. Schupper, Trevor A. Hardigan, Vikram Vasan, Braxton R. Schuldt, Ian C. Odland, Margaret Downes, Jonathan Dullea, Luis C. Ascanio, Zachary S. Troiani, Nicki Mohammadi, Jacques Lara-Reyna, Robert J. Rothrock, Daniel R. Lefton, J. Mocco, Christopher P. Kellner

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can rapidly result in cerebral herniation, leading to poor neurologic outcomes or mortality. To date, neither decompressive hemicraniectomy (DH) nor hematoma evacuation have been conclusively shown to improve outcomes for comatose ICH patients presenting with cerebral herniation, with these patients largely excluded from clinical trials. Here we present the outcomes of a series of patients presenting with ICH and radiographic herniation who underwent emergent minimally invasive (MIS) ICH evacuation. Methods: We reviewed our prospectively collected registry of patients undergoing MIS ICH evacuation at a single institution from 01/01/2017 to 10/01/2021. We selected all consecutive patients with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) ≤ 8 and radiographic herniation for this case series. Clinical and radiographic variables were collected, including admission GCS score, preoperative and postoperative hematoma volumes, National Institute of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) scores, and modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores at last follow-up. Results: Of 176 patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH who underwent minimally invasive endoscopic evacuation during the study time period, a total of 9 patients presented with GCS ≤ 8 and evidence of radiographic herniation. Among these patients, the mean age was 62 ± 12 years, the median GCS at presentation was 5 [IQR 4-6], the mean preoperative hematoma volume was 94 ± 44 mL, the mean time from ictus to evacuation was 12 ± 5 h, and the mean postoperative hematoma volume was 11 ± 16 mL, for a median evacuation percentage of 97% [83-99]. Three patients (33%) died, four (44%) survived with mRS 5 and two (22%) with mRS 4. Patients had a median NIHSS improvement of 5 compared to their initial NIHSS. Age was very strongly correlate to improvements in NIHSS (r2 = 0.90). Conclusion: Data from this initial experience suggest emergent MIS hematoma evacuation in the setting of ICH with radiographic herniation is feasible and technically effective. Further randomized studies are required to determine if such an intervention offers overall benefits to patients and their families.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number107309
Pages (from-to)107309
JournalJournal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2023


  • Cerebral herniation
  • Hematoma evacuation
  • Intracranial hemorrhage
  • Minimally invasive
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Hematoma/diagnostic imaging
  • Endoscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Rehabilitation
  • Surgery


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