Inhibitory effects of trolox-encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles on tert-butylhydroperoxide induced RAW264.7 apoptosis

Lu Han, Li Bo Du, Anil Kumar, Hong Ying Jia, Xing Jie Liang, Qiu Tian, Guang Jun Nie, Yang Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations


A nanocarrier, namely, hydroxylethyl-chitosan nanoparticles was developed in this research for delivering antioxidants with 6-hydroxy-2, 5, 7, 8-tetra-methylchromane-2-carboxylic acid (trolox) as a model antioxidant. The trolox-encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles (trolox-CS NPs) were prepared by modifying chitosan with epoxyethane, which self-assembled into NPs and entrapped trolox, and then characterized by their size, size distribution, morphology and in vitro trolox release profile. Intracellular trafficking of CS NPs was observed. The anti-oxidant effect and potential mechanism of trolox-CS NPs were subsequently investigated in RAW264.7 cells. The effects of trolox-CS NPs on RAW264.7 cells damaged by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP) were determined by MTT assay for cell viability, MDA assay for membrane lipid peroxidation, JC-1 probe and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining for mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) and RAW264.7 apoptosis, respectively. The trolox-CS NPs significantly improved cell viability and reduced MDA content compared with those of cells treated with free trolox. The trolox-CS NPs treatment inhibited MMP collapse and RAW264.7 apoptosis more obviously than free trolox. Molecular basis of apoptosis studied by western blotting revealed that trolox-CS NPs may block mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway through up-regulation of Bcl-2 and down-regulation of Bax and inhibiting the activation of pro-caspase 3, PARP and Bid.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8517-8528
Number of pages12
Issue number33
StatePublished - Nov 2012


  • Anti-Apoptosis effects
  • Anti-Oxidation activities
  • Chitosan nanoparticles
  • Trolox

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Bioengineering
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Biophysics


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