Inhibition of tumor growth by endohedral metallofullerenol nanoparticles optimized as reactive oxygen species scavenger

Jun Jie Yin, Fang Lao, Jie Meng, Peter P. Fu, Yuliang Zhao, Genqmei Xing, Xueyun Gao, Baoyun Sun, Paul C. Wang, Chunying Chen, Xing Jie Liang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

128 Scopus citations


Intraperitoneal injection of [Gd@C82(OH)22] n nanoparticles decreased activities of enzymes associated with the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the tumor-bearing mice. Several physiologically relevant ROS were directly scavenged by nanoparticles, and lipid peroxidation was inhibited in this study. [Gd@C82(OH) 22]n nanoparticles significantly reduced the electron spin resonance (ESR) signal of the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl radical measured by ESR spectroscopy. Likewise, studies using ESR with spin-trapping demonstrated efficient scavenging of superoxide radical anion, hydroxyl radical, and singlet oxygen (1O2) by [Gd@C82(OH) 22]n nanoparticles. In vitro studies using liposomes prepared from bovine liver phosphatidylcholine revealed that nanoparticles also had a strong inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation. Consistent with their ability to scavenge ROS and inhibit lipid peroxidation, we determined that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles also protected cells subjected in vitro to oxidative stress. Studies using human lung adenocarcinoma cells or rat brain capillary endothelial cells demonstrated that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles reduced H 2O2-induced ROS formation and mitochondrial damage. [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles efficiently inhibited the growth of malignant tumors in vivo. In summary, the results obtained in this study reveal antitumor activities of [Gd@C82(OH) 22]n nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. Because ROS are known to be implicated in the etiology of a wide range of human diseases, including cancer, the present findings demonstrate that the potent inhibition of [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles on tumor growth likely relates with typical capacity of scavenging reactive oxygen species.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1132-1140
Number of pages9
JournalMolecular Pharmacology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology


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