Background and Purpose - The chronic phase of vasospasm after an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage may be mediated in part by early leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. Ibuprofen is an anti-inflammatory agent that inhibits expression of certain cell adhesion molecules and therefore disrupts leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. Its systemic administration, however, has dose-limiting side effects. We evaluated the effect of the periadventitial delivery of ibuprofen using controlled-release polymers in the rat femoral artery model of chronic posthemorrhagic vasospasm. Methods - Before the animal studies, the release pharmacokinetics of the ibuprofen-loaded ethylene-vinyl acetate polymers were determined in vitro. Subsequently, the femoral arteries (n=266) of Fischer 344 rats (n=133) were enclosed in latex pouches bilaterally. In the toxicity study (n=15 rats), the animals were randomized into 5 dose groups in which 0%-, 10%-, 20%-, 30%-, or 50%-loaded ibuprofen polymers were evaluated. In the efficacy study, the animals were randomized into 5 time groups in which 50%-loaded ibuprofan polymers were inserted at 0 (n=58 rats), 6 (n=16), 12 (n=13), 24 (n=11), or 48 hours (n=12) after blood injection into the pouch. The rats were killed 12 days after blood exposure, at the time of maximal vasospasm in this model. Vasospasm was expressed as percent lumen patency. To evaluate the effect of ibuprofen on leukocyte migration, 8 rats were randomized into 2 groups. Macrophages and granulocytes were stained by immunohistochemistry with the use of a mouse OX-41 monoclonal antibody and counted in the periadventitial space 24 hours after blood exposure. Results - In vitro pharmacokinetics showed that the 50%-loaded ibuprofen polymer released its total drug lead over a 12-day period. In the toxicity study, a nonsignificant arterial vasodilatation with ibuprofen treatment was seen at higher doses, and no deleterious effects were noted on the vessel wall histologically. In the efficacy study, ibuprofen treatment resulted in significant vasospasm inhibition when treatment was initiated at 0 hour (73.7±4.9% versus 94.5±3.3% [mean±SEM percent lumen patency]; P<0.001) and 6 hours (69.2±5.7% versus 98.0±3.9%; P=0.002) after blood exposure, but not at 12, 24, or 48 hours. Leukocyte immunohistochemistry showed that ibuprofen treatment resulted in significantly lower periadventitial macrophage and granulocyte counts of 25.0±3.9 cells per high-powered field compared with counts of 140.5±18.2 cells per high-powered field in the untreated vessels (P<0.001). Conclusions - The periadventitial, controlled release of ibuprofen from surgically implanted polymers significantly inhibits chronic posthemorrhagic vasospasm in this model when treatment is initiated within 6 hours of blood exposure, Vasospasm inhibition with ibuprofen correlates with a significant decrease in the number of macrophages and granulocytes in the periadventitial space. This study supports the hypothesis that inflammation mediates in part the chronic phase of posthemorrhagic vasospasm and suggests a potential alternative treatment for this condition.
- Cell adhesion molecules
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing