Inhalation delivery of a novel diindolylmethane derivative for the treatment of lung cancer

Nkechi Ichite, Mahavir Chougule, Apurva R. Patel, Tanise Jackson, Stephen Safe, Mandip Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to determine the anticancer efficacy of 1,1-bis (3′-indolyl)-1-(p-biphenyl) methane (DIM-C-pPhC6H 5) by inhalation delivery alone and in combination with i.v. docetaxel in a murine model for lung cancer. An aqueous DIM-C-pPhC 6H5 formulation was characterized for its aerodynamic properties. Tumor-bearing athymic nude mice were exposed to nebulized DIM-C-pPhC6H5, docetaxel, or combination (DIM-C-pPhC 6H5 plus docetaxel) using a nose-only exposure technique. The aerodynamic properties included mass median aerodynamic diameter of 1.8 ± 0.3 μm and geometric SD of 2.31 ± 0.02. Lung weight reduction in mice treated with the drug combination was 64% compared with 40% and 47% in mice treated with DIM-C-pPhC6H5 aerosol and docetaxel alone, respectively. Combination treatment decreased expression of Akt, cyclin D1, survivin, Mcl-1, NF-κB, IκBα, phospho-IκBα, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and increased expression of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 2 and Bad compared with tumors collected from single-agent treatment and control groups. DNA fragmentation was also enhanced in mice treated with the drug combination compared with docetaxel or DIM-C-pPhC6H5 alone. Combination treatment decreased expressions of VEGF and CD31 compared with single-agent treated and control groups. These results suggest that DIM-C-pPhC6H5 aerosol enhanced the anticancer activity of docetaxel in a lung cancer model by activating multiple signaling pathways. The study provides evidence that DIM-C-pPhC6H5 can be used alone or in combination with other drugs for the treatment of lung cancer using the inhalation delivery approach.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3003-3014
Number of pages12
JournalMolecular Cancer Therapeutics
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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