Chronic inflammatory diseases including human immunodeficiency virus infection, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus predispose to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common chronic inflammatory condition, and the United States has the highest prevalence worldwide. IBD has so far been overlooked as a contributor to the burden of ASCVD among young and middle-age adults, but meta-analyses of cohort studies suggest that IBD is an independent risk factor for ASCVD. This review discusses the epidemiological links between IBD and ASCVD and potential mechanisms underlying these associations. ASCVD risk management of patients with IBD is challenging because of their young age and the inability of current risk scores to fully capture their increased risk. The role of IBD in current primary prevention guidelines is evaluated, and strategies for enhanced ASCVD risk reduction in patients with IBD are outlined. Finally, the authors discuss knowledge gaps and future research directions in this innovative field.
- cardiovascular disease
- inflammatory bowel disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine