Infection risks in multiple myeloma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials from 2015 to 2019

Nicole Balmaceda, Muhammad Aziz, Viveksandeep Thoguluva Chandrasekar, Brian McClune, Suman Kambhampati, Leyla Shune, Al Ola Abdallah, Faiz Anwer, Aneela Majeed, Muzaffar Qazilbash, Siddhartha Ganguly, Joseph McGuirk, Ghulam Rehman Mohyuddin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) remain at an increased risk of infection due to the disease process, as well as the ensuing treatments. Methods: We performed a systematic review to evaluate the monthly risk of grade III/IV infection, pneumonia, and neutropenia in patients with myeloma enrolled in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Results: The risk of grade III or higher infection, pneumonia, and neutropenia persists among all phases of treatment. There was no statistical difference in grade III or higher infection, pneumonia, and neutropenia between frontline and relapsed/refractory setting. In the maintenance setting, the complications of infection, pneumonia, and neutropenia were low, but not negligible. Three-drug regimens were no more likely than two-drug regimens to have an increased risk of Grade III or higher infection. Conclusions: This is the first study to quantify the monthly risk of grade III or higher infection, pneumonia, and neutropenia across different treatment regimens in the frontline, maintenance, and relapsed/refractory settings. The results of our systematic review demonstrate a significant risk for severe infection, pneumonia, and neutropenia in patients with MM. Further studies are needed to determine the value of antibiotic prophylaxis in a broader myeloma patient population, as well as other approaches that will further mitigate the morbidity and mortality related to infection in this vulnerable patient population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number730
JournalBMC Cancer
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2021

Keywords

  • Anti-CD38
  • Cytotoxic therapy
  • Infection
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Proteasome inhibitors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Genetics
  • Cancer Research

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