Individualizing liver transplant immunosuppression using a phenotypic personalized medicine platform

Ali Zarrinpar, Dong Keun Lee, Aleidy Silva, Nakul Datta, Theodore Kee, Calvin Eriksen, Keri Weigle, Vatche Agopian, Fady Kaldas, Douglas Farmer, Sean E. Wang, Ronald Busuttil, Chih Ming Ho, Dean Ho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

84 Scopus citations


Posttransplant immunosuppressive drugs such as tacrolimus have narrow therapeutic ranges. Inter- and intra-individual variability in dosing requirements conventionally use physician-guided titrated drug administration, which results in frequent deviations from the target trough ranges, particularly during the critical postoperative phase. There is a clear need for personalized management of posttransplant regimens to prevent adverse events and allow the patient to be discharged sooner. We have developed the parabolic personalized dosing (PPD) platform, which is a surface represented by a second-order algebraic equation with experimentally determined coefficients of the equation being unique to each patient. PPD uses clinical data, including blood concentrations of tacrolimus - the primary phenotypic readout for immunosuppression efficacy - to calibrate these coefficients and pinpoint the optimal doses that result in the desired patient-specific response. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, we compared four transplant patients prospectively treated with tacrolimus using PPD with four control patients treated according to the standard of care (physician guidance). Using phenotype to personalize tacrolimus dosing, PPD effectively managed patients by keeping tacrolimus blood trough levels within the target ranges. In a retrospective analysis of the control patients, PPD-optimized prednisone and tacrolimus dosing improved tacrolimus trough-level management and minimized the need to recalibrate dosing after regimen changes. PPD is independent of disease mechanism and is agnostic of indication and could therefore apply beyond transplant medicine to dosing for cancer, infectious diseases, and cardiovascular medicine, where patient response is variable and requires careful adjustments through optimized inputs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberra49
JournalScience translational medicine
Issue number333
StatePublished - Apr 6 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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