Incorporation of rapid diagnostic tests to improve time to antimicrobial therapy for gram-positive bacteremia and candidemia

Leroy Koh, Punit J. Shah, Aileen Korulla, Gordana Jasmak, Oyejoke Fasoranti, Charles Janak, Katherine Perez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose. Even with rapid diagnostic technology to swiftly identify infectious organisms, prompt response is needed to translate results into appropriate actions. The purpose of this study was to determine if the introduction of real-time pharmacist response to positive rapid diagnostic test results would decrease time to antimicrobial therapy for gram-positive bacteremia and candidemia in a community hospital setting. Methods. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in 2 community hospitals. The study comprised 2 cohorts of adult patients who tested positive for gram-positive bacteremia involving Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, or Candida species. The preintervention cohort consisted of patients admitted from November 2017 through May 2018. The intervention cohort consisted of patients admitted from July 2018 through January 2019, after the intervention went live. The primary outcomes were time to optimal antimicrobial therapy and time to effective antimicrobial therapy. Results. A total of 140 patients were included in the preintervention group, with 124 patients included in the intervention group. The mean (SD) time to effective therapy decreased from 13.9 (21.6) hours in the preintervention group to 8.6 (12.5) hours in the intervention group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89-1.48; P = 0.29). The mean (SD) time to optimal therapy significantly decreased from 53.7 (57.7) hours in the preintervention group to 38.4 (31.5) hours in the intervention group (HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.33-2.26; P < 0.001). Conclusion. The introduction of real-time pharmacist response to positive rapid diagnostic test results led to a significant decrease in time to optimal antimicrobial therapy but did not significantly affect time to effective therapy. The results showed that the allocation of limited resources of a community hospital to such a stewardship program is justifiable.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)622-631
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Health-System Pharmacy
Volume77
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2020

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial therapy
  • Community hospital
  • Pharmacist
  • Prospective review
  • Rapid diagnostic technology
  • Time to therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Health Policy

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