BACKGROUND: Data comparing the frequency and outcomes of infective endocarditis (IE) after transcatheter (TAVR) to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) are scarce. The objective of this study is to compare the incidence and outcomes of IE after TAVR using a supra-annular, self-expanding platform (CoreValve and Evolut) to SAVR. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data of 3 randomized clinical trials comparing TAVR to SAVR and a prospective continued TAVR access study were pooled. IE was defined on the basis of the modified Duke criteria. The cumulative incidence of IE was determined by modeling the cause-specific hazard. Estimates of all-cause mortality were calculated by means of the Kaplan–Meier method. Outcomes are reported for the valve-implant cohort. During a mean follow-up time of 2.17±1.51 years, 12 (0.5%) of 2249 patients undergoing TAVR and 21 (1.1%) of 1828 patients undergoing SAVR developed IE. Patients with IE more frequently had diabetes mellitus than those without (57.6% versus 34.2%; P=0.005). The cumulative incidence of IE was 1.01% (95% CI, 0.47%–1.96%) after TAVR and 1.58% (95% CI, 0.97%–2.46%) after SAVR (P=0.047) at 5 years. Among patients with IE, the rate of all-cause mortality was 27.3% (95% CI, 1.0%–53.6%) in the TAVR and 51.8% (95% CI, 28.2%–75.3%) in the SAVR group at 1 year (log-rank P=0.15). CONCLUSIONS: Pooled prospectively collected data comparing TAVR with a supra-annular, self-expanding device to SAVR showed a low cumulative risk of IE irrespective of treatment modality, although the risk was lower in the TAVR implant group. Once IE occurred, mortality was high.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine