In-Band Full-Duplex: The Physical Layer

Besma Smida, Risto Wichman, Kenneth E. Kolodziej, Himal A. Suraweera, Taneli Riihonen, Ashutosh Sabharwal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


In this article, we review the key concepts and the progress in the design of physical-layer aspects of in-band full-duplex (IBFD) communications. One of the fundamental challenges in realizing IBFD is self-interference that can be up to 100 dB stronger than signals of interest. Thus, we start by reviewing state-of-the-art research in self-interference cancellation, addressing both model-based and emerging machine learning-based methods. Then, we turn our attention to new wireless systems with many degrees of freedom for which the traditional IBFD designs do not gracefully scale and, hence, require many innovations to enable IBFD. We provide an extensive review of basic concepts and state of the art in massive multiple-input–multiple-output IBFD. Then, we consider the mmWave band IBFD and review advanced physical-layer architectures. The above review provides the proper context to discuss IBFD innovations and new challenges for sixth-generation networks and beyond, where wireless networks are envisioned to be multifunctional, combining communications with functions such as sensing, cognitive radios, physical-layer security, and wireless power transfer. We conclude this article with a status update on the adoption of IBFD in communication standards.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-30
Number of pages30
JournalProceedings of the IEEE
StateAccepted/In press - 2024


  • Cross-link interference
  • Full-duplex system
  • in-band full-duplex (IBFD)
  • integrated sensing and communication (ISACs)
  • Interference cancellation
  • Massive MIMO
  • Millimeter wave communication
  • mmWave
  • multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems
  • Radar
  • Radar antennas
  • reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS)
  • Reviews
  • self-interference cancellation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science(all)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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