Twenty-three men who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy between March 1, 1983, and October 1, 1986, were found to have not only multifocal carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the bladder but also transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the prostatic ducts. In 18 patients TCC was limited to the epithelium lining the prostatic ducts (CIS of prostatic ducts), but in 5 patients TCC also invaded the prostatic stroma (invasive TCC of prostatic ducts). During follow-up (mean, 26 months), in 2 of the 18 patients (11 %) with CIS of the prostatic ducts metastases developed. By comparison, metastatic TCC developed in 5 of 5 patients (100%) who had invasion into the prostatic stroma. Evidence indicates that patients with multifocal CIS of the bladder should be evaluated very closely for the presence of TCC of the prostatic ducts. When TCC is present in the ducts, radical cystoprostatectomy is necessary to control this lesion before it progresses to invasion. When invasion has occurred, however, radical cystoprostatectomy alone is not sufficient therapy. Since metastatic TCC develops in 100 percent of these patients, we believe that chemotherapy (either adjuvant or neoadjuvant) should be used in addition to radical cystoprostatectomy.
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