Implications of Social Disadvantage Score in Cardiovascular Outcomes and Risk Assessment: Findings From the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

Aziz Hammoud, Haiying Chen, Alexander Ivanov, Joseph Yeboah, Khurram Nasir, Miguel Cainzos-Achirica, Alain Bertoni, Safi U. Khan, Michael Blaha, David Herrington, Michael D. Shapiro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Social determinants of health contribute to disparate cardiovascular outcomes, yet they have not been operationalized into the current paradigm of cardiovascular risk assessment. METHODS: Data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, which includes participants from 6 US field centers, were used to create an index of baseline Social Disadvantage Score (SDS) to explore its association with incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and all-cause mortality and impact on ASCVD risk prediction. SDS, which ranges from 0 to 4, was calculated by tallying the following social factors: (1) household income less than the federal poverty level; (2) educational attainment less than a high school diploma; (3) single-living status; and (4) experience of lifetime discrimination. Cox models were used to examine the association between SDS and each outcome with adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Changes in the discrimination and reclassification of ASCVD risk by incorporating SDS into the pooled cohort equations were examined. RESULTS: A total of 6434 participants (mean age, 61.9±10.2 years; female 52.8%; non-white 60.9%) had available SDS 1733 (26.9%) with SDS 0; 2614 (40.6%) with SDS 1; 1515 (23.5%) with SDS 2; and 572 (8.9%) with SDS ≥3. In total, 775 incident ASCVD events and 1573 deaths were observed over a median follow-up of 17.0 years. Increasing SDS was significantly associated with incident ASCVD and all-cause mortality after adjusting for traditional risk factors (ASCVD: per unit increase in SDS hazard ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.07-1.24]; mortality: per unit increase in SDS hazard ratio, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.08-1.19]). Adding SDS to pooled cohort equations components in a Cox model for 10-year ASCVD risk prediction did not significantly improve discrimination (P=0.208) or reclassification (P=0.112). CONCLUSIONS: Although SDS is independently associated with incident ASCVD and all-cause mortality, it does not improve 10-year ASCVD risk prediction beyond pooled cohort equations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e009304
Number of pages10
JournalCirculation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2023


  • atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease
  • ethnicity
  • social determinants of health
  • Risk Assessment
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Female
  • Aged
  • Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Implications of Social Disadvantage Score in Cardiovascular Outcomes and Risk Assessment: Findings From the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this