Importance: Fatal human rabies infections can be prevented through appropriate rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). Errors in patient selection and administration of human rabies immune globulin in the emergency department (ED) setting were identified in a previous study of rabies PEP administration. Objective: To test the a priori hypothesis that implementation of a rabies PEP bundle in the ED would improve full adherence to 6 human rabies immune globulin quality indicators compared with preimplementation controls. Design, Setting, and Participants: This quality improvement study was conducted in 15 EDs in a US multihospital health system. Patients who received human rabies immune globulin or rabies vaccine in the ED from January 2015 to June 2018 were included in the preimplementation control group and from December 2019 to November 2020 were included in the postimplementation intervention group. Data were analyzed in January 2021. Exposure: The PEP bundle was implemented in December 2019 and consisted of electronic health record enhancements, including clinical decision support, ED staff education, and patient education. Main Outcomes and Measures: Full adherence to 6 human rabies immune globulin quality indicators: patient selection, dose, timing, infiltration into wounds, administration distant from rabies vaccine site, and administration that avoids the buttock. Results: The study included 324 patients; 254 patients were in preimplementation group (mean [SD] age, 39  years; 135 [53%] women) and 70 in the postimplementation group (mean [SD] age, 38  years; 33 [47%] women). Most patients presented to EDs embedded in a community hospital (231 patients [71%]). Full adherence increased from 37% in the preimplementation group to 61% postimplementation (absolute increase, 24%; 95% CI, 11% to 37%; P <.001). Adherence improved for quality indicators for infiltration into wounds (137 of 254 patients [54%] to 50 of 70 patients [71%]; P =.009), administration distant from rabies vaccine site (180 of 254 [71%] to 58 of 70 [83%]; P =.04), and administration that avoids the buttock (168 of 254 [66%] to 58 of 70 [83%]; P =.007). No instances of sciatic nerve injury or compartment syndrome were observed. Conclusions and Relevance: In this quality improvement study, implementation of a rabies PEP bundle was associated with improved patient selection and delivery of human rabies immune globulin in EDs across a multihospital health system. Although the bundle included ED staff education and patient discharge education, the observed improvement was likely driven by clinical decision support from the rabies PEP ED order set. Future research should evaluate implementation of this clinical decision support at other health systems..
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||JAMA Network Open|
|State||Published - Jun 21 2022|
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