Remote robotic-assisted endovascular interventions require real-time control of the robotic system to conduct precise device navigation. The delay (latency) between the input command and the catheter response can be affected by factors such as network speed and distance. This study evaluated the effect of network latency on robotic-assisted endovascular navigation in three vascular beds using in-vivo experimental model. Three operators performed femoral, carotid, and coronary endovascular robotic navigation blinded from the hybrid room with the prototype remote-enabled CorPath GRX system in a porcine model. Navigation was performed to different targets with randomly assigned network latencies from 0 to 1000 ms. Outcome measurements included navigation success, navigation time, perceived lag (1 = imperceptible, 5 = too long), and procedural impact scored by the operators (1 = no impact, 5 = unacceptable). Robotic-assisted remote endovascular navigation was successful in all 65 cases (9 femoral, 38 external carotid, 18 coronary). Guidewire times were not significantly different across the simulated network latency times. Compared to 0 ms added latency, both the procedural impact and perceived lag scores were significantly higher when the added latency was 400 ms or greater (< 0.01). Remote endovascular intervention was feasible in all studied anatomic regions. Network latency of 400 ms or above is perceptible, although acceptable to operators, which suggests that remote robotic-assisted femoral, carotid or coronary arterial interventions should be performed with network latency below 400 ms to provide seamless remote device control.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)29-35
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Robotic Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2022


  • Endovascular surgery
  • Network latency
  • Remote surgery
  • Robotic-PCI
  • Robotic-assisted
  • Animals
  • Swine
  • Humans
  • Robotic Surgical Procedures/methods
  • Endovascular Procedures
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Robotics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics
  • Surgery


Dive into the research topics of 'Impact of network performance on remote robotic-assisted endovascular interventions in porcine model'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this