Immunosuppressive Functions of M2 Macrophages Derived from iPSCs of Patients with ALS and Healthy Controls

Weihua Zhao, David R. Beers, Jason R. Thonhoff, Aaron D. Thome, Alireza Faridar, Jinghong Wang, Shixiang Wen, Loren Ornelas, Dhruv Sareen, Helen S. Goodridge, Clive N. Svendsen, Stanley H. Appel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder with immune alterations that augment disease severity. M2 macrophages benefit diabetic and nephrotic mice by suppressing the pro-inflammatory state. However, neither have M2 cells been investigated in ALS nor have human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived M2 cells been thoroughly studied for immunosuppressive potentials. Here, iPSCs of C9orf72 mutated or sporadic ALS patients were differentiated into M2 macrophages, which suppressed activation of pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages as well as proliferation of ALS CD4+CD25- Tc (Teffs). M2 cells converted ALS Teffs into CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and rescued Tregs of ALS patients from losing CD25 and Foxp3. Furthermore, Tregs induced or rescued by iPSC-derived M2 had strong suppressive functions. ALS iPSC-derived M2 cells including those with C9orf72 mutation had similar immunomodulatory activity as control iPSC-derived M2 cells. This study demonstrates that M2 cells differentiated from iPSCs of ALS patients are immunosuppressive, boost ALS Tregs, and may serve as a candidate for immune-cell-based therapy to mitigate inflammation in ALS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101192
Issue number6
Early online dateMay 23 2020
StatePublished - Jun 26 2020


  • Cellular Neuroscience
  • Immunology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


Dive into the research topics of 'Immunosuppressive Functions of M2 Macrophages Derived from iPSCs of Patients with ALS and Healthy Controls'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this