Immunoliposomes containing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the costimulatory molecules CD28 and CTLA4 and their counterreceptors B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) were evaluated for the ability to increase the immune response to recombinant envelope protein rgp120 of the MN strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) during vaccination. MAbs were attached to rgp120-containing liposomes via a biotin-avidin-biotin bridge. Mice vaccinated with immunoliposomes were found to have a strong delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to the weakly immunogenic gp120 that was dependent on the presence of the MAbs. However, this vaccination protocol did not induce humoral immunity. The DTH response was not accompanied by increased production of interferon Γ (IFN-Γ) or interleukin 4 (IL-4), implying that the primary cellular interaction was between the immunoliposomes and cells of the reticuloendothelial system and not helper T (Th) cells. This strategy of incorporating antibodies to costimulatory molecules on the surface of antigen-containing particulates, such as liposomes or microspheres, can be used to increase DTH immune responses to protein or peptide vaccines.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases