Immune-Related Oral, Otologic, and Ocular Adverse Events

Nagham Al-Zubidi, J. Cody Page, Dan S. Gombos, Akanksha Srivastava, Eric Appelbaum, Paul W. Gidley, Mark S. Chambers, Marc Elie Nader

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Scopus citations


Emerging immunotherapeutic agents, including immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1), have revolutionized cancer treatment. The first immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) ipilimumab, an anti-CTLA-4, was approved in 2011. Since then, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved more than half a dozen immune checkpoint inhibitors to treat various malignancies. These agents are part of a broader class of chemotherapy agents termed immunotherapy, which selectively target different steps in the immune response cascade to upregulate the body’s normal response to cancer. While the effects of traditional chemotherapy are well known, the toxicity profile of emerging immune therapies is not fully elucidated. They have been associated with atypical side effects labeled collectively as immune-related adverse events (irAEs).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Number of pages18
StatePublished - 2021

Publication series

NameAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
ISSN (Print)0065-2598
ISSN (Electronic)2214-8019


  • Dental
  • Ears
  • Eyes
  • Immunotherapy
  • Side effects

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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