Immune modulation in heart failure: Past challenges and future hopes

Jose H. Flores-Arredondo, Gerardo García-Rivas, Guillermo Torre-Amione

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Immune-modulation therapy has had great success in various inflammatory diseases. Despite the promising results of preliminary studies in anti-tumor necrosis factor-α therapies, large randomized studies have lacked positive clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure. These results have led to the idea that therapies directed toward specific inflammatory mediators may not be the answer and lead us toward the development of novel anti-inflammatory strategies that may involve a broader spectrum of inflammatory mediators. Therapeutic plasma exchange has been demonstrated as a safe treatment, and preliminary outcomes led us to develop new treatment schemes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)28-37
Number of pages10
JournalCurrent heart failure reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2011


  • Cytokines
  • Heart failure
  • Immune modulation
  • Interleukin-1
  • Interleukin-6
  • Intravenous immunoglobulin
  • Neurohormonal
  • Therapeutic plasma exchange
  • Tumor necrosis factor-α

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Emergency Medicine


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