Immune-mediated conditions affecting the brain, eye and ear (BEE syndromes)

James D. Triplett, Katherine A. Buzzard, Michal Lubomski, D. Sean Riminton, Michael H. Barnett, Miriam S. Welgampola, G. Michael Halmagyi, Mai Anh Nguyen, Klara Landau, Andrew G. Lee, Gordon T. Plant, Clare L. Fraser, Stephen W. Reddel, Todd A. Hardy

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


The triad of central nervous system symptoms, visual disturbance and hearing impairment is an oft-encountered clinical scenario. A number of immune-mediated diseases should be considered among the differential diagnoses including: Susac syndrome, Cogan syndrome or Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease; demyelinating conditions such as multiple sclerosis or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder; systemic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome or Behcet disease and granulomatous diseases such as sarcoidosis. In this article, we coin the term’BEE syndromes’ to draw attention to the various immune-mediated diseases that affect the brain, eye and ear. We present common disease manifestations and identify key clinical and investigation features.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)882-894
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry
Issue number8
StatePublished - Mar 9 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Surgery


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