Immunotherapy has renovated the field of oncology. Usually, cancer is treated by surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Immunotherapy is a promising treatment that harnesses the patient's own immune system to target cancer. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have proven to be a promising treatment avenue for managing cancer; however, their use had been associated with a unique spectrum of adverse side effects called immune-related adverse events (irAEs). As ICIs become increasingly relevant in cancer management, it is crucial to address these irAEs affecting various systems in the body, including the skin, liver, gastrointestinal tract, endocrine system, and the eye. Ocular toxicity and sight-Threatening events are among the reported irAEs, impacting diverse ocular tissues. The most commonly reported ocular irAEs (OirAEs) are blurred vision, conjunctivitis, ocular surface disease uveitis, scleritis, and retinopathy. Nevertheless, the frequency and severity of these OirAEs can vary, even within the same class of ICIs. Thus, OirAEs can significantly impact the quality of life and patient compliance. Therefore, we aim to comprehensively analyze uncommon and severe ICI-related OirAEs associated with lung cancer by providing a comprehensive and updated review of immune checkpoint monoclonal antibody-related adverse effects in neuro-ophthalmology irAEs. Through a review of the relevant literature, we intend to illustrate the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, contributory factors, diagnosis, and management of ICI-Associated ocular side effects. We will also discuss guidelines and best practice strategies for the prevention, monitoring, and management of these OirAEs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-28
Number of pages4
JournalSaudi Journal of Ophthalmology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2024


  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors ocular toxicities
  • immune-related adverse events
  • ocular toxicities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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