Imaging spectrum of adverse events of immune checkpoint inhibitors

G. S. Shroff, S. Shroff, J. Ahuja, M. T. Truong, I. Vlahos

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), a form of immunotherapy, are increasingly used for a variety of malignancies and have been linked to numerous treatment-related side effects known as immune-related adverse events (irAEs). IrAEs can affect multiple organ systems and are important to recognise in order to avoid misinterpretation as progressive tumour and to ensure appropriate management. In this pictorial review, we will briefly discuss radiological response criteria of immunotherapy and describe the imaging appearances of the wide spectrum of these ICI-associated toxicities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)262-272
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Radiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2021


  • Adrenal Gland Diseases/diagnostic imaging
  • Colitis/diagnostic imaging
  • Encephalitis/diagnostic imaging
  • Hepatitis/diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects
  • Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging
  • Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
  • Pancreatitis/diagnostic imaging
  • Pericarditis/diagnostic imaging
  • Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging
  • Sarcoidosis/diagnostic imaging
  • Thyroiditis/diagnostic imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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