Identifying and understanding variation in population-based access to liver transplantation in the United States

Katie Ross-Driscoll, Jonathan Gunasti, Arrey Takor Ayuk-Arrey, Joel T. Adler, David Axelrod, Lisa McElroy, Rachel E. Patzer, Raymond Lynch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


We aimed to identify variations in liver transplant access across transplant referral regions (TRRs), accounting for differences in population characteristics and practice environments. Adult end-stage liver disease (ESLD) deaths and liver waitlist additions from 2015 to 2019 were included. The primary outcome was listing-to-death ratio (LDR). We modeled the LDR as a continuous variable and obtained adjusted LDR estimates for each TRR, accounting for clinical and demographic characteristics of ESLD decedents, socioeconomic and health care environment within the TRR, and characteristics of the transplant environment. The overall mean LDR was 0.24 (range: 0.10-0.53). In the final model, proportion of patients living in poverty and concentrated poverty was negatively associated with LDR; organ donation rate was positively associated with LDR. The R2 was 0.60, indicating that 60% of the variability in LDR was explained by the model. Approximately 40% of this variation remained unexplained and may be due to transplant center behaviors amenable to intervention to improve access to care for patients with ESLD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1401-1410
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Transplantation
Issue number9
Early online dateJun 10 2023
StatePublished - Sep 2023


  • Adult
  • End Stage Liver Disease/surgery
  • Humans
  • Liver Transplantation
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tissue and Organ Procurement
  • United States/epidemiology
  • Waiting Lists

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Transplantation
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Immunology and Allergy


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