Identification of CCR4 and other essential thyroid hormone receptor co-activators by modified yeast synthetic genetic array analysis

Manjapra Govindan, Xianwang Meng, Clyde L. Denis, Paul Webb, John D. Baxter, Paul G. Walfish

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Identification of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) co-regulators has enhanced our understanding of thyroid hormone (TH) action. However, it is likely that many other co-regulators remained unidentified, and unbiased methods are required to discover these proteins. We have previously demonstrated that the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent system in which to study TR action, and that defined TR signaling complexes in a eukaryotic background devoid of complicating influences of mammalian cell co-regulators can be constructed and analyzed for endogenous yeast genes, many of which are conserved in mammals. Here, a modified synthetic genetic array analysis was performed by crossing a yeast strain that expressed TRβ1 and the co-activator GRIP1/SRC2 with 384 yeast strains bearing deletions of known genes. Eight genes essential for TH action were isolated, of which 4 are conserved in mammals. Examination of one, the yeast CCR4 and its human homolog CCR4/NOT6 (hCCR4), confirmed that (i) transfected CCR4 potentiates a TH response in cultured cells more efficiently than established TR co-activators and (ii) knockdown of CCR4 expression strongly inhibited a TH response (>80%). TH treatment promoted rapid and sustained hCCR4 recruitment to the TH-responsive deiodinase 1 promoter and TR co-localizes with hCCR4 in the nucleus and interacts with hCCR4 in 2-hybrid and pull-down assays. These findings indicate that a modified yeast synthetic genetic array strategy is a feasible method for unbiased identification of conserved genes essential for TR and other nuclear receptor hormone functions in mammals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19854-19859
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number47
StatePublished - Nov 24 2009


  • Conserved nuclear receptor signaling genes
  • Nuclear receptor co-activators

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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