Beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (BCM) catalyzes the first step of vitamin A biosynthesis from provitamin A carotenoids. We wished to determine the factors underlying the transcriptional regulation of this gene. After cloning of the 40 kilobase pair (kbp) mouse Bcm gene and determination of its genomic organization, analysis of the 2 kb 5'-flanking region showed several putative transcription factor binding sites including TATA box, a peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE), AP2, and bHLH. The 2 kb fragment drove specific luciferase gene expression in vitro only in cell lines that express BCM (TC7, PF11, and monkey retinal pigment epithelium). Nucleotides -41 to +163, and -60 to +163 drove basal and specific Bcm transcriptional activity, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis and gel shift experiments demonstrate that PPRE was essential for Bcm promoter specificity and that the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma (PPARgamma) specifically binds to this element. Furthermore, cotransfection experiments and pharmacological treatments in vitro, using the specific PPARgamma agonists LY17883 and ciglitazone, demonstrate that the PPRE element confers peroxisome proliferator responsiveness via the PPARgamma and retinoid X receptor-alpha heterodimer. Treatment of mice with the PPARalpha/gamma agonist WY14643 increases BCM protein expression in liver. Thus PPAR is a key transcription factor for the transcriptional regulation of the Bcm gene, suggesting a broader function for PPARs in the regulation of carotenoid metabolism metabolism that is consistent with their established role in neutral lipid metabolism and transport.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||3|
|Journal||The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology|
|State||Published - Jul 2003|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology