Dnormal multiple ickkopf-1tissues, myeloma (DKK1),maybroadly (MM) be an and idealexpressed other target cancers forbyimmunotherapy.tumor but absent cells from from Ourhuman most previous studies have shown that DKK1 (peptide)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes can effectively lyse primary MM cells in vitro. To develop DKK1-based vaccines that can be easily and inexpensively made and used by all patients, we identified a DKK1 long peptide (LP), DKK13-76-LP, that contains 74 amino acids and epitopes that can potentially bind to all major MHC class I and II molecules. Using HLA-A*0201- and HLA-DR*4-transgenic mouse models, we found that DKK1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, detected by DKK1 short peptide (P20 and P66v)-HLA-A*0201 tetramer staining and cytotoxic assay for CD8+ T cells or by carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CSFE) dilution and IFN-g secretion for CD4+ T cells, respectively, can be induced in vivo by immunizing mice with the DKK13-76-LP. In addition, DKK13-76-LP also induced anti-DKK1 humoral immunity in the transgenic mice and the DKK1 antibodies were functional. Finally, DKK13-76-LP stimulated human blood T cells ex vivo to generate DKK1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses from 8 out of 10 MM patients with different MHC backgrounds. The generated DKK1-specific CD8+ cells efficiently lysed autologous MM cells from these patients. Thus, these results confirm the immunogenicity of the DKK13-76-LP in eliciting DKK1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses in vitro and in vivo, and suggest that the DKK13-76-LP can be used for immunotherapy of MM and other cancers.
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