Identification of a toxic impurity in commercial diphenylamine

S. Clegg, S. Safe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


The impurity in commercial diphenylamine which induces polycystic kidney disease in rats has been identified as N, N, N’-tri-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine. The structure of the compound was confirmed by mass and proton magnetic resonance spectrometry and by comparison with a synthetic standard prepared by the Ullman coupling of iodobenzene and p-phenylenediamine or N, N-diphenyl-p-phenylene-diamine. Laboratory studies with highly purified diphenylamine indicated that N, N, N’-triphenyl-p-phenylenediamine can be formed by heating diphenylamine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)125-130
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 1 1981


  • N
  • N’
  • diphenylamine N
  • tryphenyl-p-phenylenediamine toxic impurity kidney disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Pollution


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