Hybrid procedures for epicardial catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia: Value of surgical access

Yoav Michowitz, Nilesh Mathuria, Roderick Tung, Fardad Esmailian, Murray Kwon, Shiro Nakahara, Tara Bourke, Noel G. Boyle, Aman Mahajan, Kalyanam Shivkumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Scopus citations


Background Prior chest surgery limits the ability to obtain epicardial access in patients referred for catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT). Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the utility of different surgical approaches to access the epicardium for VT ablation. Methods Clinical data of 14 patients with drug-refractory VT who underwent hybrid surgical epicardial access for catheter mapping and ablation in the electrophysiology lab were reviewed. Baseline patient and procedural characteristics including access, exposure, mapping techniques, and ablation were analyzed. Results Of a total of 14 patients (age 63.2 ± 10.3 years), 11 had a subxiphoid window performed, and three patients underwent limited anterior thoracotomy to access the epicardium. The indication for surgical access was prior cardiac surgery (n = 12), previous failed epicardial access (n = 1), and ablation in close proximity to the coronary arteries and phrenic nerve (n = 1). Mapping in patients with subxiphoid surgical access was limited to the inferior and diaphragmatic surface of the heart extending posteriorly to the basal lateral wall. With limited anterior thoracotomy, access to the apex, anterior, and mid to apical anterolateral walls was obtained. In these regions, adhesions were more severe and repeat entry into the epicardial region at a different intercostal level was needed in two of three patients. Conclusion Surgical access with subxiphoid window and limited anterior thoracotomy in the electrophysiology lab is feasible and safe. The surgical approach can be tailored to the region of interest in the ventricle to be mapped and ablated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1635-1643
Number of pages9
JournalHeart Rhythm
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2010


  • Ablation
  • Pericardium
  • Surgery
  • Ventricular tachycardia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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