The clinical and laboratory features of six human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with atypical mycobacterial skeletal infections, seen at a county outpatient HIV facility or university outpatient clinic, are reviewed and compared with other reported cases. Atypical mycobacterial skeletal infections are a manifestation of advanced HIV disease, with most cases having CD4 counts <100/mm3 at the time these infections become clinically apparent. Multiple sites are frequently involved, and concomitant skin infection with the same organism is common, especially with Mycobacterium haemophilum. The incidence of atypical mycobacterial skeletal infection in HIV-infected individuals was significantly higher than in the general county hospital district patient population, whereas the frequency of Myobacterium tuberculosis skeletal infection did not differ significantly between the two populations. The clinician therefore should maintain a high index of suspicion for atypical mycobacteria in a patient presenting with skeletal infection in the setting of a markedly depressed CD4 count.
- Atypical mycobacteria
- HIV-1 infection
- septic arthritis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine