Thirty-seven male veterans with combat-related PTSD completed measures of hostile automatic thoughts, hope, and positive and negative affect. Responses to the items of each measure were presented in two formats: (a) the veteran's feelings today and (b) (on a separate form) how he felt while in combat. Veterans reported significantly higher levels of hostility and negative affect in combat as opposed to today. Contrary to predictions, high levels of both positive affect and automatic positive thoughts also were reported in combat relative to today. Hope levels varied primarily as a function of being employed rather than unemployed. The implications and limitations of this methodology and these findings for combat veterans and other groups are discussed.
- military veterans
- positive and negative affect
- posttraumatic stress disorder
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
- Clinical Psychology