Highlights on Ocular Toxicity of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors at a US Tertiary Cancer Center

Anam A. Mazharuddin, Andrew T. Whyte, Dan S. Gombos, Nimisha Patel, Azadeh Razmandi, Amina L. Chaudhry, Nagham S. Al-Zubidi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Introduction: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have improved prognosis in advanced malignancies; however, they may be associated with extensive ocular immune-related adverse events (irAEs) that are sight threatening. Our study aimed to identify the presentation, characteristics, management, and clinical outcomes of ocular irAEs. Methods: In this retrospective, observational case series, we reviewed the medical records of 1280 patients at a large US tertiary cancer center between 2010 and 2020. Results: We identified 130 patients who presented with ocular irAEs (10%) with 69 males (53%) and 61 females (47%). The mean time to toxicity was 6.1 months. Adverse events include corneal toxicity (31%), neuro-ophthalmic (14%), uveitis and scleritis (13%), retinopathy (13%), periocular disorders (11%), and others. IrAEs occurred most frequently with nivolumab (26%). Most ocular irAEs were treated with topical therapy. Advanced cases required systemic corticosteroids and even cessation of ICIs. Conclusion: Our cohort is a large case series highlighting the increased potential of ocular toxicity associated with ICIs. Prompt recognition and management of ocular irAEs can minimize their effect.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)98-104
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Immunotherapy and Precision Oncology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • immune checkpoint inhibitors
  • immunotherapy side effects
  • nivolumab
  • ocular immune-related adverse events
  • ocular toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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