Helper T-Cell Subsets and Control of the Inflammatory Response

Todd N. Eagar, Stephen D. Miller

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

3 Scopus citations


CD4T cells are critical components of the immune system and key regulators of the inflammatory processes required to limit infection. Decades of research have led to the discovery of multiple CD4T-cell subsets (T-helper cell 1 [Th1], Th2, Th17, Th9, Th22, Tfh) that promote the function of a broad range of immune cell types, including phagocytes, granulocytes, and other lymphocyte subsets. This is accomplished through direct cell-to-cell interactions and via the production of cytokines. The contributions of CD4T cells to host protection are highlighted by the clinical conditions of individuals with impaired T-cell responses. Conversely, dysregulation of T-cell responses can result in rampant inflammation and autoimmunity, as seen in a myriad of clinical conditions. Therefore, T cells have the formidable challenge of protecting the host over their life span from a myriad of pathogenic organisms while limiting reactions against self-antigens. To carry out inflammatory reactions, T cells must transit through several stages or checkpoints. These include antigen recognition and activation, clonal expansion, migration, effector differentiation, and survival or memory. These distinct stages provide control to produce the proper types of inflammation and protection from dysregulated T-cell responses. This chapter examines the role of CD4T cells as effectors and regulators of inflammation. The discussion addresses the processes required to generate functional T-cell immunity, the pathways regulating established immune responses, and the functional heterogeneity within the T-cell compartment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationClinical Immunology
Subtitle of host publicationPrinciples and Practice, Sixth Edition
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9780702081651
ISBN (Print)9780702081668
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022


  • Inflammation
  • regulation
  • T cell
  • tolerance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)


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