Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT) is a complex procedure that can be performed in both inpatient (IP) and outpatient (OP) care settings. We examined reimbursement, service utilization, and patient financial responsibility among Medicare beneficiaries with multiple myeloma who underwent auto-HCT in the IP and OP settings using a merged dataset of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research observational database and Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare administrative claims data. Selection criteria included first auto-HCT, time from diagnosis to auto-HCT <18 months, and continuous enrollment in Medicare Parts A and B for 30 days before HCT index claims and 100 days post-HCT or until death. Total reimbursement and patient responsibility were adjusted for patient and disease characteristics using a weighted generalized linear model. The final cohort comprised 1640 patients, 1445 (88%) who received IP-HCT and 195 (12%) who received OP-HCT. The adjusted total mean reimbursement was higher for IP-HCT compared with OP-HCT ($82,368 [95% CI, $77,643 to $87,381] versus $46,824 [95% CI, $43,567-$50,325]; P < .0001). Adjusted total mean patient responsibility was $4736 for IP-HCT (95% CI, $4731 to $5133) and $6944 for OP-HCT (95% CI, $6296 to $7658) (P < .0001). Within 100 days post-HCT, 107 of the 195 OP-HCT recipients (55%) had at least 1 subsequent admission, compared with 348 of the 1445 IP-HCT recipients (24%). Reimbursement, service utilization, and financial responsibility varied by HCT setting. As the number of Medicare beneficiaries who undergo auto-HCT increases, coverage policy needs to consider how location of services leads to variations in the financial burden for both hospital systems and patients.
- Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
- Health services research
- Multiple myeloma
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